CATHERINE CROWLEY was a convict woman who was tried and convicted at the Staffordshire Assizes in July 1788 for feloniously stealing “wearing apparell [sic].” She was sentenced to transportation for seven years and came to the colony with the Second Fleet per Neptune (1790). She formed a relationship with D’ARCY WENTWORTH (II) aboard Neptune and became his common-law wife. Together, the couple had three sons.
- Alternate: CATHERINE CROWLEY
- WENTWORTH family vault, Section 2, Row J, No. 3, St. John’s Cemetery, Parramatta.
- Born: 1772, Ireland
- Tried and convicted: July 1788, Staffordshire Assizes, Staffordshire, England
- Sentenced to seven years transportation:July 1788, Staffordshire Assizes, Staffordshire, England
- Likely was among the 1000 convicts who were embarked on the Second Fleet ships bound for Botany Bay, as reported in the London Chronicle: c. 15 December 1789, Stokes Bay, England
- Sailed to Spithead: 5 January 1790, Spithead, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
- Reached the Motherbank: 12 January 1790, Motherbank, off Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
- Sailed for the Colony of New South Wales per Neptune: 17 January 1790, Motherbank, off Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
- Arrived with Second Fleet per Neptune: 28 June 1790, Port Jackson, Colony of New South Wales
- Departed Port Jackson per Surprize: 1 August 1790, Port Jackson
- Arrived at Norfolk Island per Surprize: 7 August 1790, anchored off Cascade Bay, Norfolk Island
- Gave birth to son WILLIAM CHARLES WENTWORTH: 13 August 1790, on board the Surprize, anchored off Cascade Bay, Norfolk Island
- Moved into a cottage with D’ARCY WENTWORTH and their son WILLIAM: April 1791, Charlotte Field (renamed Queenborough), Norfolk Island
- Gave birth to son DORSET CROWLEY WENTWORTH (aka D’ARCY WENTWORTH (III)): 23 June 1793, Queenborough, Norfolk Island
- Gave birth to son MATTHEW WENTWORTH (aka JOHN WENTWORTH): 13 June 1795, Queenborough, Norfolk Island
- Gave birth to daughter MARTHA WENTWORTH: (did not survive infancy), Queenborough, Norfolk Island
- Sailed to Sydney per Reliance with her family: late February 1796, Norfolk Island
- Arrived in Sydney per Reliance with her family: 5 March 1796, Sydney, Colony of New South Wales
- Husband D’ARCY WENTWORTH established the family in Parramatta: May 1799, Parramatta, Colony of New South Wales
- Died: 6 January 1800 at Woodhouse estate, Parramatta, Colony of New South Wales
- Buried: c. 6 January 1800, Parramatta Burial Ground (St. John’s Cemetery, Parramatta)
- Moved from contiguous grave and reinterred with her husband D’ARCY WENTWORTH: 7 July 1827, St. John’s Cemetery, Parramatta
- In Jul 1969, V. de V. Voss informed the Mitchell library that the original 1800 headstone of CATHERINE CROWLEY formed part of a well in the grounds of a cottage in Campbell Street Parramatta, noting that the number of the cottage had been altered from 44 to 54.
- Common-law wife of D’ARCY WENTWORTH (II)
- Parent of WILLIAM CHARLES WENTWORTH
- Parent of D’ARCY WENTWORTH (III)
- Parent of MATTHEW WENTWORTH (aka JOHN WENTWORTH)
- Parent of MARTHA WENTWORTH
- Convict, Neptune, c. 15 December 1789–28 June 1790
Abstract: Catherine Crowley was just seventeen years of age when she was involuntarily sent to the far-flung shores of ‘Botany Bay’ in 1790. Yet she survived the horrors of the Second Fleet and served out her penal sentence in relatively gentle circumstances on Norfolk Island. Later at Parramatta, she lived quietly and in comfort until her early death in 1800. Perhaps the biggest tragedy of her short life was never knowing the lasting legacy she bequeathed to colonial New South Wales. more>>
Abstract: In the late eighteenth century transportation across the seas to Botany Bay was a fate worse than death for many. But some early exiles used it as a chance for reinvention, recovery and rich redemption. Most survived, some made good, and a few made vast fortunes. D’Arcy Wentworth was a divisive figure, then as now. In many respects, though, his story encapsulates the early years of colonial New South Wales where luck, determination, hard work and the rehabilitation of a reputation were possible in the circumstances of a strange new society struggling to establish itself. more>>
- Australian Royalty (https://australianroyalty.net.au), “CATHERINE CROWLEY (1772–1800),” https://australianroyalty.net.au/individual.php?pid=I63996&ged=purnellmccord.ged, accessed 27 January 2019.
- Judith Dunn, The Parramatta Cemeteries: St. John’s, (Parramatta, NSW: Parramatta and District Historical Society, 1991), p. 117.
# Second Fleet
# Trial Place: Staffordshire Assizes
# Punishment: Seven Years Transportation
# Ship: Neptune (1790)
# Grave: marked